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Lightsss perssson! Are you fire? Are you on Floran\’s ssside? What are you? You are sso pretty! Lights ssscary. Floran wantsss! Greeting \”Eager. I will always welcome new friends! It is wonderful to meet you. It\’s very nice to meet you. Greetings friend. Lovely to have you here. Can I help you somehow? Hello there. Wonderful to meet you. I hope you\’re enjoying your visit. Good day to you. Can I help you? Good day. Oh, hello. Why, hello! Welcome stranger.

How nice to make your acquaintance. Nice to get to know you. How do you do? Hello my fine fellow. Welcome, welcome, welcome! Behave yourself. What is your purpose here? Who are you? I\’m sure you won\’t be any trouble. You won\’t be a problem You behave yourself. Have an absolutely wonderful day.

Try not to get yourself killed. Should you be here? Welcome to my store. You know you want to buy everything! A customer!

Return soon! Thank you for your patronage. You\’re not going to buy more? Until next time, customer. Please follow me to my shop. Please allow me to lead you to my shop.

Now we can do business. Now we can trade to our hearts\’ content. Come, buy! Are you a customer? Come and view my wares! Come and buy form this merchant of great renown! My shop is different. I dislike the changes you have made, restore my shop. I wish my shop was how it used to be. My home is different. I dislike the changes you have made, put things back how they were.

I wish my house was how it used to be. My poor house – the walls are damaged. Could you fix things up? There is a need for repairs here. Can you fix my home? I\’m sure it\’s salvageable. The walls are damaged and custom is down. Could you fix up the shop? These broken walls a putting off trade, I need them fixed. Can you fix my shop? Then my customers might come back. Are you trying to move a stranger into my home? But this is my home, I can\’t share it I thought this place was my very own home, but you want me to share it.

Are you trying to move another merchant into my store? But this is my shop, I can\’t share it I thought I had this shop exclusively for myself. I need you to fix my home. I wish my requests were listened to. The fixes to my home haven\’t been made.

You need to improve these conditions, it is impossible to work here. The fixes to my store haven\’t been made. This is beyond me. I\’m taking my leave. I deserve a better home than this\” [sic] \”Upset. I didn\’t want it to come to this, but I can\’t stay here any longer.

I deserve a better shop to do business in! You need me for something? Did you need me for a particular reason? Here I am! What did you want to talk about? Did you want to chat? Is this a social call? Are you buying or selling? What can I do for you? What did you need to purchase? This is going very well! Here\’s a gift to say thank you. Here is a gift, for all your help. A gift of thanks. I got you a present for all you\’ve done for me. I hope you like the gift, you\’ve earned it!

Take this, for your continued patronage. Please take this gift as a thank you for helping with my shop. A foe! Have at thee! I will not be easily overcome.

To battle! I shall defeat this foe! You have breathed your last! Prepare to lose your life! You young\’uns are always causin\’ trouble! Here we go again You\’ll not make a mockery o\’ me! Didn\’t they tell ye, never aggro a smith? Looks like I\’ll be messin\’ up me nice new weapon.

Huh, more disruption. A good chance to test me weapon out! Looks like I\’ll have to teach ye a lesson. You will regret returning. This time you will not escape. I am ready to battle you once again! How dare you return!? You have returned only to be vanquished! Another victory! Another job well done.

That was exhilarating! I need to get more exercise. What a triumph. A marvelous victory! What an excellent display of my own skill. I lost my adversary What am I doing with my life? Now what am I going to do? Good riddance. Come back? I\’ll just wait here \’til you come back. I know you\’re here somewhere! Where did they go? Wasn\’t I fighting someone a second ago? How did you disappear!? They are beyond my reach! Come here! Why didn\’t I bring a crossbow?

How can we fight if I can\’t reach you? Come closer so we can fight! Help me! Don\’t hurt me! Why is this happening!? Get away from me! Save me! What\’s happening!? Strike them down! Get them! Get the foe! Why isn\’t this foe already dead? I want to kill it! I got away! I\’m alive! That was exhausting. Am I safe? I think I leaked a little oil. You are stealing! You are taking things that aren\’t yours! I assumed you were a nice person, not a thief. Those aren\’t yours, why are you taking them? A thief!

Guards, seize this criminal! Guards, guards! How can you do this!? You thieving scoundrel! Stop this thievery! Guards, help me! A lot of old Glitch adventurers hoard the treasure they\’ve found over the years.

Important Glitch relics tend to get handed from Glitch to Glitch, but I\’ve never had one. I wonder what treasures I could amass if I travelled the universe. You hear such stories I once heard of a keep owned by an oddball and filled with wonders.

I have heard that purple robed cultist have been attacking a Glitch keep. Have you heard of the Baron? He took all my money in a game of cards! As if he needs it, with all those treasures. Some Glitch keeps and castles hold ancient valuables within their walls.

I wish I had wondrous treasures Some Glitch have some troves of riches! Have you heard of the Occasus? Apparently they\’re strange angry people who have been attacking a Glitch keep! I\’ve heard stories of a Glitch who calls himself the Baron. Apparently he owns mounds of treasure!

I have so much scheduled for today! Let\’s do some quests! There is so much questing to be done! You\’ll be safe if you stay close to me! What is your business here? Well this is fun. Why are you bothering me? I can\’t find my favourite boots.

It has been a nice day so far. You look funny! I caught eight bugs today! It\’s my birthday today! What could I have done with my hat? I just had it in my hand! What is happening here? I have things to do! I love my home. What do you think of this place? I think I may have a screw loose. Keep your distance, I think I have a virus. One day follows the next but time seems to stand still. I\’m going to check my eel traps later.

Wish me luck! People often think I look regal. I am in a terrible mood. Why is cooking so hard? All my dishes taste terrible. I\’ve been eating pottage for eight straight days.

You\’re lucky you don\’t have the recipe. You are very nice-looking. My pig ran away. Something does not seem right. I do not want to talk to you. Please don\’t leave, it\’s nice to have some company. I love castles!

What a pleasant day. Have you ever tasted an automato? How do you differentiate between the genders of your species? It is nice to meet you. I\’ve been so busy recently. You are delightful. I can\’t find my hacksaw. My friend told me I make terrible stew. I make brilliant stew! One day I\’ll become an amazing blacksmith. What are you doing here? I want to go to bed. Please stop pushing my buttons. Physically we couldn\’t be more different. Such a pretty creature!

I had something to do today and I cannot remember what it was. I think I might have buried my spade. What\’s your business here? Where do you come from? You don\’t happen to have a ratchet do you?

Are you a knight? I do not really have time to talk. I think I broke my friends crafting table. You seem very important. Every time I bend down my back clanks. Have you seen a chicken round here? I just had a wonderful nap. I lost my best thimble. Leave me beeeee! It\’s so nice to meet a new person! My cousin is visiting today, she\’s so much fun! This universe is filled with monsters! I\’m having a day off tomorrow. Does traveling the stars make you happy? My feet ache, my back hurts, my eye bulbs feel dim.

Day after day, it\’s always the same. I lied about how many chickens I had to impress my friends. This is such a friendly place. I think I\’ll spend the rest of my days here. Time seems to stand still sometimes. Someone squished my chicken! My partner and I got our wires crossed. Now he won\’t talk to me. I\’m learning to play the lute! What brings you here friend? What a friendly face! What a lovely day. I thought I left an apple round here somewhere.

Sorry, I\’ve only just woken up. What where you saying? My shoulder is not an appropriate thing in which to check your reflection. There\’s no accounting for tastes in fashion There is a severe lack of consistency in your race\’s exteriors.

Such a hairy creature! No monkeying around. You look very strong. Apex are my favourite beings! Are you a human? Why are you so hairy? Is Big Ape an Apex, or something else? I love banana bread! Do you have some with you. I\’ve heard terrible things about the Miniknog, I feel so sorry for your people.

Your hair is a rare gift, you should keep it in better condition. Would you care for a banana? Are you perhaps related to the Yetis of legend? What is a Miniknog? What function does your pelt serve Ape man? You may rest here any time, ape man. Your fur looks wonderful! Would that I were an Apex.

Are you Big Ape? Because I cannot imagine an ape even bigger than you. I am sorry. I drifted off for a moment, imagining your fur blowing softly in the breeze.

Would you Perhaps one day you would explain to the Glitch the secret of the banana split. It is said the bird men believe in a feathered god, is that true? May I buy an egg from you? Your eggs must be quite enormous. Just as I find myself in need of a new quill, here you are.

Which of you came first? Your egg or I hold no ill will towards you bird man. Do you head south for the winter? Are Avian bones hollow? How do you like it here, feathered friend? Greetings, my Avian friend! Are your kind descended from chickens? You\’re not here to steal my grain are you? I have some seeds around here somewhere. I don\’t know anything about Avians. Are temples like castles? I wonder who would win a fight, a Glitch knight or an Avian warrior.

What does Kluex look like? I love your beak. Birds are my favourite animal! You would make a very comfy feathered pillow. A flock of your kind came through the other day. Please attempt to restrain your zeal for shiny objects while you are here. My, what a sharp beak you have. Welcome, bird man. You have beautiful plumage. May I have a feather? I suppose feathers look alright. What brings you here bird man? Good day to you bird man! I hope you\’re feeling well bird man.

Well met, my feathered friend. I\’ve never met a bird man before. Greetings plant man. Were you born or grown? Don\’t eat anybody. What sharp teeth you have! You seem polite, but I cannot be sure you won\’t try to eat me. Your teeth won\’t pierce my casing! Nice to meet you plant man, we have rich soil here.

You have a frightening appearance Floran. I wish Glitch could grow flowers. Are all Florans ferocious? Do you you ever need pruning? Could a Glitch become a greenfinger? You\’re friendly, right? Do your leaves fall off in the autumn? You smell like flowers! How lovely. You are not so frightening. Try not to scare anyone plant man, we don\’t want everyone running for the hills.

May I have some of your leaves? I didn\’t notice you there, I thought you were a potted herb. Will you eh You have lovely buds.

Please don\’t eat our livestock. You don\’t really eat people do you? May I smell your flowers? You look friendly enough, I think people have got you Floran all wrong!

Are you thorny or can I have a hug? You\’re so pretty! Are your leaves just for show, what is their anatomical function? I didn\’t know organic matter could be so strong!

Would you like some water? Can plant men get by on just water and sunlight? I think plant men are cute, despite what everyone says! Your optics are so well lit! You\’re so shiny. Always nice to meet a new Glitch. I\’ve developed a rust problem. It\’s strange meeting a foreign Glitch. I\’ve no time for Glitch that go chasing adventure. I think you have a chip in your right eye bulb. Let\’s play clunky jacks!

Oh, another Glitch. I\’ve never met such an adventurous Glitch before. How do you young Glitch have so much energy? What a pleasant Glitch. I\’m going to learn to sword fight! Maybe I\’ll become a knight! I\’m having new thoughts. You don\’t have a virus do you? I heard what happened to Earth, just terrible.

I wish that I was in the Protectorate Do you think what happened on Earth could happen here? What happened to Earth was so sad. What is it like to be human? Where Earth chickens the same as Glitch chickens? Human faces are too expressive. A human! Are you an Apex? Where is your fur? Watch where you locate your lumpy meat! How do you cope with the jiggling of your fleshy shell? Why are you wearing that flesh over your chassis? I heard humans often have viruses.

You wobble when you walk. Perhaps you would like to examine some Glitch constructions to advance your own designs. It must be liberating to be able to swim through the oceans without a care. It appears the Glitch aren\’t the only species lacking in glorious hair.

I\’ve always been a fan of your species\’ superior artistic skills. Sometimes when I try to swim I just float, but sometimes I try and I sink instead! I\’ve never tried tea, is it good? Do you paint? I heard all Hylotl do. I wrote an amazing poem once. I would like to visit a Hylotl library some time. I\’m a little scared of fish. Do Hylotl enjoy rain? Every Hylotl I\’ve met has always been so polite. Hylotl buildings are so much nicer than Glitch castles. I\’ve never been to a library, what are they like?

I know Hylotls paint and write, but do they dance? A Hylotl. I thought Hylotl had to stay underwater? Could I make you some tea? I think I brew quite a good cup. Pacifism seems doomed to failure, my Hylotl friend. Please, tell me more about Hylotl craftsmanship. I apologise if Glitch furnishings are not to your taste. Your scent reminds me of my trips to the seaside as a young Glitch.

What do Hylotl do when they need to take a bath? You have a fish in your pocket. Glitch furniture lasts ten times longer than furniture made by the Hylotl. Do you take shelter from the rain? Perhaps, if you are not too busy, you could take me sailing one day. What sort of a being are you? Are you on fire? Are there more like you? I do not know what to make of you.

You glow brighter than my eyes. I saw a Glitch glow like that once – he was very ill. What are you made of? Something new! Nice to meet you! You really brighen up the place. Your face is strange Did a blacksmith make you?

What a strange being? You must never have to buy torch oil. I like bright things. What a strange encounter. Your glowing body is very appealing. How do you see without a face? I cannot trust you if I cannot judge your facial expressions. I trust anyone, even those with glowing skin. How do you maintain your incandescence? Are you organic, or mechanical?

Finally a worthy adversary. I am sorry, but we are not permitted to talk to guest of the castle. A life of Freedom. That sound wonderful. Don\’t talk to me! You\’ll get me in trouble! Do you have some business with our lord? Greeting \”Sup? Just don\’t do anything. I mean Merchant End \”See you next time! Welcome \”Welcome to my store! Now, how can I help you? Unfulfilled Tag Criteria Villager \”Things have changed Either you\’ve messed things up, or I\’m being haunted. It feels off The damage is putting off customers.

Can you help? Can you help fix it? I can\’t share my home! I can\’t share the store! Time to leave! Time to take my business elsewhere! What\’s up? You can take it, or not. It\’s up to you. Here\’s a present! That stuff doesn\’t belong to you! You can\’t go about stealing! What are you doing!? That\’s theft! Stop stealing!! Catch this terrible robber! Guards, catch that thief! A Robber! This is the life!

Is anything more exciting? Adventure, intrigue, pillaging? Not pillaging, right? I want to do something fun. I\’ve been looking for it for like an hour.

I feel so inconsequential. I\’m going to have to eat so much mayonnaise. Don\’t know why. Everything is terrible. My sole skill is shadow puppetry. What about werewolves? I have stuff to do. I want to make thorn fruit jam this weekend. So tired. That\’s super cool!

This is the worst day ever. It\’s my poker face. I can\’t believe it. Claimed there are 4 methods for measuring audiences. Emotional security – we all keep seeking it; Reassurance of worth – In a connected world we can lose sense of who we are and what we are worth.

Celebrities are also used when they effectively say \’you will be admired and valued like me\’; Ego gratification – we want to be congratulated and praised, much as we needed to be valued and praised as a child; Creative outlets – Many jobs have little creative content, leaving this need unfulfilled.

We thus seek creative opportunity in other parts of our life; Love objects – They need something to love and if they do not have something they will buy or make one; Sense of power – when we are in control we have a sense of ability to choose and perhaps possess power over others; Roots – we seek roots but in seeking to satisfy other needs we make ourselves rootless; Immortality — we seek to create meaning in our lives so we may live beyond death. Turow – His basic premise is that audience segmentation, and especially the pinpoint targeting that is theoretically possible with new media technology, reinforces suspicion, alienation, and lack of empathy among people of different groups because they have lost the shared consumer experience that the old mass media audience system provided.

Barthes — says texts may be \’open\’ i. Barthes also decided that the threads that you pull on to try and unravel meaning are called narrative codes. Action Code: proairetic code advance the narrative — they drive it forwards. The Proairetic Code also builds tension as it sets the reader guessing what will happen next.

For example, a gunslinger draws his gun and we wonder what the resolution will be. We wait to see if he kills his opponent or is wounded himself. Action codes are seen to appeal particularly to men and are more prominent in some genres than others. Enigma Code: hermeneutic code refers to any element of the story that is not fully explained and hence becomes a mystery to the reader.

Enigmas are puzzles, questions the audience wants answered. Enigma codes are created by the producer controlling the amount of information released to the audience and determining at what stage certain bits of information will be given. The purpose of the author in this is typically to keep the audience guessing, arresting the enigma, until the final scenes when all is revealed and all loose ends are tied off and closure is achieved.

Semantic Code denotation and connotation : This code refers to connotation within the story that gives additional meaning over the basic denotative meaning of the word. It is by the use of these extended meanings that authors can paint rich pictures with relatively limited set of signifiers. Symbolic Code: This is very similar to the Semantic Code, but acts at a wider level, organizing meanings into broader and deeper sets of meaning. This is typically done through the use of binary opposites, where new meaning arises out of opposing and conflicting ideas.

Cultural Code: referential code Something that is read with understanding due to cultural awareness e. The cultural codes tend to point to our shared knowledge about the way the world works.

These elements give the text plausibility with its audience. Meaning can only be discovered by exploring how audiences interpret texts. Christopher Booker\’s The Seven Basic Plots is a long book detailing seven common narratives seen across books and across film. Ordinary World — the ordered world that the hero will choose or be forced to abandon. Refusal Of The Call — fear or reluctance may strike the hero.

Meeting With The Mentor — the mentor is a key character. Crossing The First Threshold — the hero commits to the adventure. Test, Allies, Enemies — the hero must learn the rules that will govern his quest. Approach To The Innermost Cave — the most dangerous confrontation yet, perhaps the location of the treasure, or the object of the quest. Ordeal — the hero must face his fear or mortal enemy who will seem more powerful.

Mental or physical torture may occur. Reward Seizing The Sword — the hero can celebrate the victory. The Road Back — vengeful forces controlled by the villain are unleashed. Resurrection — perhaps a final confrontation with death. Return With The Elixir — return to the ordinary world with some wisdom, knowledge or something else gained from the adventure. Pam Cook , the standard Hollywood narrative structure should have:. Linearity of cause and effect within an overall trajectory of enigma resolution.

A fictional world that contains verisimilitude especially governed by spatial and temporal coherence. Kate Domaille every story ever told can be fitted into one of eight narrative types. Each of these narrative types has a source, an original story upon which the others are based. These stories are as follows:. Achilles: The fatal flaw that leads to the destruction of the previously flawless, or almost flawless, person, e. Superman, Fatal Attraction. Candide: The indomitable hero who cannot be put down, e.

Indiana Jones, James Bond, Rocky etc. Circe: The Chase, the spider and the fly, the innocent and the victim e. The Terminator. Faust: Selling your soul to the devil may bring riches but eventually your soul belongs to him, e. Orpheus: The loss of something personal, the gift that is taken away, the tragedy of loss or the journey which follows the loss, e. Tristan and Iseult: The love triangle. Man loves woman…unfortunately one or both of them are already spoken for, or a third party intervenes, e.

Fiske et al – \”Story is the irreducible substance of a story A meets B, something happens, order returns , while narrative is the way the story is related Once upon a time there was a princess Syd Field — American Screenwriter came up with a formulaic approach to film structure in three acts. Media texts offer a way of telling stories about ourselves — not usually our own personal stories, but the story of us as a culture or set of cultures.

Propp , V – Examined the importance of character within narrative after studying classic folk tales – 32 character profiles. Hero protagonist has a mission of quest to complete e. Luke Skywalker. Villain antagonist tries to stop the hero Darth Vader. Father person with knowledge Leia. Dispatcher sends the hero off Obi Wan.

Donor gives the hero something to help him Obi Wan. Sidekick the helper not as handsome as hero —poss. False hero villain that pretends to be good in order to trick the hero. Levi Strauss – believed that the way we understand certain words depends not so much on any meaning they themselves directly contain, but by our understanding of the difference between the word and its \’opposite\’ or, as he called it \’binary opposite\’.

He looks at opposites as a key way of structuring and driving narrative. Jacques Derrida argued that the binary opposites are never equal and audiences are positioned to favour one over another. Equilibrium : sets the scene Everyday Life — established what life is like for the main characters before anything happens.

Disruption : complication Something happens to alter the equilibrium — there may be a series of disrupting events throughout the story. Recognition of Disruption: climax Key characters realise a disruption has occurred. Repair of Disruption: Characters struggle to deal with the disruption and restore equilibrium.

May be better, similar of worse than the original equilibrium. Robert McKee alternative to Todorov — still five stages but as follows:. Inciting Incident: An event happens that sets the story going.

Progressive Complications: For a key character, things just keep getting worse. Climax: Things are now so bad, drastic action is called for. Resolution: Whatever the problem was is sorted out and all is well again.

Althusser – Suggests that \’ideological state apparatus\’ is enforced by media, education, religion and family who maintain hegemony and enforce dominant values across society. Chris Anderson — The Long Tail; If you add up all the revenue from Niche market films the profit can be greater than or equal to the profit from one blockbuster or best-selling product.

Coates – Examined that there are 4 ways to understand a society linked to ideology. The Frankfurt School theorised in the s and 30s that the mass media acted to restrict and control audiences to the benefit of corporate capitalism and governments. Theodor Adorno and Max Horkheimer Michael Foucault — power and classes – He is one of the few writers on power who recognise that power is not just a negative, coercive or repressive thing that forces us to do things against our wishes, but can also be a necessary, productive and positive force in society.

Taken from Gaventa 2. Ideals and cultures can be enforced upon the masses. McLennon – Developed theory of ideology and that 3 conditions needed to be present. O\’Brien , W – Conducted a study into the development of 3rd generation gaming through historical commentary. Raymond Williams : The Media is always dominated by the rich and powerful in society Marxist Perspective. Net neutrality — Adam Conover is an advocate and Youtuber, not the inventor of the term.

Net neutrality is the principle that Internet service providers and governments regulating the Internet should treat all data on the Internet the same, not discriminating or charging differentially by user, content, website, platform, application, type of attached equipment, or mode of communication. This is under review and effectively a BIG issue to watch. Gillmor – Highlighted the notion of audience revolution in the construction of their own media products we media.

Tim O\’Reilly – inventor of term \’Web 2. He states that it is not a replacement for the Web that we know and love, but rather a way of using existing systems in a \’new\’ way: to bring people together creatively. Gauntlett – His name comes up a few times in terms of how technology influences our identity but also notably for identifying the following about the role of media studies and the impact the web is having on audiences and institutions:.

Media 1. A belief that students should be taught how to \’read\’ the media in an appropriate \’critical\’ style. Vague recognition of internet and new digital media, as an \’add on\’ to the traditional media. A preference for conventional research methods where most people are treated as non-expert audience \’receivers\’, or, if they are part of the formal media industries, as expert \’producers\’.

Media 2. Focus on everyday meanings produced by the diverse array of audience members. Attempt to embrace the truly international dimensions of Media Studies — including a recognition not only of the processes of globalization, but also of the diverse perspectives on media and society being worked on around the world.

The spirit of \’Web 2. The internet is empowering for people who like to make things, share ideas, and learn together. People doing things because they want to is always better than people watching things because they are there. The distribution and funding possibilities of the internet are better than the traditional models.

Small steps into a changed world are better than no steps. The internet is the most extraordinary of these external storage systems, offering access to a vast array of information, text and audio-visual material, and giving people a platform to share and exchange ideas, and to collaborate on projects together. Jeff Howe — Crowd Sourcing. Lanier argues that Web 2. In his book Who Owns the Future?

By convincing users to give away valuable information about themselves in exchange for free services, firms can accrue large amounts of data at virtually no cost. Instead of paying each individual for their contribution to the data pool, the Siren Servers concentrate wealth in the hands of the few who control the data centres.

Charles Leadbeater from the book We Think explores the ways in which mass collaboration is dramatically reshaping our approach to work, play, and communication. Society is no longer based on mass consumption but on mass participation.

He proposed a question to our generation: why not use technology for innovation and creativity instead of consumption? Quote: \”We think therefore we are, we share what we are\”. Andrew Keen – argues that, on balance, the Internet has had a disastrous impact on all our lives. Key arguments include: Web 2. Institutions therefore have to examine ways to make money in a copying age — Kelly developed 8 concepts.

EG: Photoshop filters; Blurs lines between professional and amateur. Marshall McLuhan – Electronic age The Global Village Many of his ideas were developed way before the internet arrived; he was a visionary. In this new age, humankind will move from individualism and fragmentation to a collective identity, with a \”tribal base.

Rapidly, we approach the final phase of the extensions of man. The medium is the message. This is merely to say that the personal and social consequences of any medium – that is, of any extension of ourselves – result from the new scale that is introduced into our affairs by each extension of ourselves, or by any new technology. John McMuria – A participatory culture is not necessarily a diverse culture.

Minorities are grossly under-represented – the most heavily viewed videos on YouTube tend to come from white middle class males.

If we want to see a more \”democratic\” culture, we need to explore what mechanisms might have encouraged greater diversity in who participates, whose work gets seen, and what gets valued within the new participatory culture. Evgeny Morozov — dystopian view — Slacktivism.

The Web is an active medium. While watching TV, viewers want to be entertained. They are in relaxation mode and vegging out; they don\’t want to make choices. TV is a passive medium. Lean Back 2. Henry Jenkins – Participatory culture. Key quotes:. Fan fiction is a way of the culture repairing the damage done in a system where contemporary myths are owned by corporations instead of owned by the folk. If old consumers were predictable and stayed where you told them, then new consumers are migratory, showing a declining loyalty to networks or media.

If old consumers were isolated individuals, then new consumers are more socially connected. If the work of media consumers was once silent and invisible, then new consumers are now noisy and public. None of us can know everything; each of us knows something; we can put the pieces together if we pool our resources …. Collective intelligence can be seen as an alternative source of media power. David Nye presented the idea of cyber-dystopia, which envisions a world made worse by technological advancements.

Cyber dystopias centre around the principles of the individual losing control, becoming dependent and being unable to stop change.

Nye describes a society where the elite use technology to oppress and control mass groups of people. He also presents technology as a form of false hope; promising success and change, but causing pain and inconvenience when that goal is not reached. Douglas Rushkoff sings the praises of Web 2.

It fosters communication, collaboration, sharing, helpfulness, and community… The ideas, information, and applications now launching on Web sites around the world capitalize on the transparency, usability, and accessibility that the internet was born to deliver.

He also suggests that people are organizing great things without the need for organisations. He also wrote greatly about the role of audiences in a digital age, stating that the idea of a \’powerful consumer\’ is an oxymoron. The people who own these large corporations are not representative of the diversity of society. The internet has allowed for the freedom of citizen journalism. The audience is now the producer. We are a nation of Netizens and prosumers. Eisenstein – Developed the form of film with his use of montage Media Language ; Tudor Defined and categorised the types of montage used by Eisenstein.

Goffman – In the portrayal of men and women, advertising often uses the following codes and conventions:. Dismemberment: On females, parts of the body such as legs, chest, etc. This is to accentuate the parts of their body which will attract a male audience. Women are physically portrayed in sexual or reclining poses with blank or inviting expressions. The Voice-Over Authority: In moving image advertisements, male voices are used as voice-overs in commercials rather than females. Advertising: \”Commercial photographs,\” Goffman points out, \”involve carefully performed poses presented in the style of being \’only natural\’.

Alan Kirby – says postmodernism is dead and buried. In its place comes a new paradigm of authority and knowledge formed under the pressure of new technologies and contemporary social forces. Neil Henry – Technology has caused a crisis in professional journalism. Citizen journalism is prone to unethical practises. Ethical professional journalism is essential to an informed, free and democratic society. Martin Baker — regulation theory — researcher against media regulation of film — he argued that we need to see violence because it is part of society.

Lyotard, JF – Developed concept of postmodernism, explaining that Media texts are self-aware, independent from modernism and able to pick and mix meaning from real life and vice versa.

Marshall – Examined the changing relationship between games and movies Andre Bazin and Roger Leenhardt also expressed that the director brings the film to life and uses it to express their feelings on the subject matter. An auteur can also use lighting, setting, staging, and editing to add to their vision.

One reason for this is the collaborative aspect of film making. Saussure – Concept of semiotics and language linguistics – the extended connotations of within a cultural system.

BLUE is often associated with sadness or the sea etc. Williams – Identified 3 core characteristics in Drama and also categorised 9 forms of the TV programme. Creativity Theory. To promote creativity, you need to be able to play and take risks. Ken Robinson. Spontaneity takes practice – Csikszentmihalyi or a theorist.


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