Acronis disk director home 12 free
Caution: Avoid moving a volume from which an operating system other than Windows, such as Linux, starts. Total Commander Free to try. Even if your machine fails to boot normally, you can boot it by using WinPE-based bootable media created with Acronis Bootable Media Builder. The system volume contains files that are necessary to start Windows, such as boot. With the log, you can examine information about disk and volume operations, including reasons any for failures. Step 1. Most Popular. The offline status means that a dynamic disk is accessible in the read-only mode. G GPT disk A disk whose partitioning scheme p. Unlike the automatic recovery mode, you do not have to wait until the whole search is finished using the manual mode.❿
Download Acronis Disk Director 12 Build . Acronis disk director home 12 free
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This software is no longer available for the download. This could be due to the program being discontinued , having a security issue or for other reasons. Award-winning disk management software for Windows PC! Join our mailing list Stay up to date with latest software releases, news, software discounts, deals and more. Free Download. Share with Friends. Acronis Disk Director is a powerful and easy-to-use tool for managing disks and volumes.
With a comprehensive set of operations, you can organize your hard disk and volume configuration for optimal performance, while keeping your data safe. Acronis Disk Director is a set of powerful tools that work together to optimize your disk usage and protect your data. Create and manage disk partitions to store different file systems or operating systems on one disk. Easily recover lost or deleted data , reduce the time of image backups and diagnostic tools, and improve overall PC performance.
Download Acronis Disk Director Now! Features and Highlights Manipulate Manage your data, whether you are splitting, resizing, converting, or merging volumes. Bigger cluster sizes improve performance by decreasing the time to access to larger files. However, having a bigger cluster size wastes disk space if the typical size of the files stored on the volume is smaller than the cluster size. To change cluster size 1.
Right-click the volume whose cluster size you need to change, and then click Change cluster size. Select the required cluster size from the list. The default cluster size is marked in the list as default. The default cluster size depends on the volume size and the type of the file system.
Important: The program does not allow you to select a particular cluster size if, the free volume space will decrease to the point where the data will not fit on the volume. Acronis Disk Director displays warning messages, when you select such cluster sizes. Click OK to add the pending cluster size changing operation. Right-click the volume whose file system you need to convert, and then click Change file system.
Select the required file system. Click OK to add the pending file system changing operation. Hiding a volume means changing the volume type so that the operating system cannot \”see\” this volume. You may want to hide a volume in order to protect information from unauthorized or casual access.
Hiding a volume does not affect letters assigned to other volumes, but the hidden volume loses its letter and this letter becomes free for assignment. Important: Hiding a volume that contains a swap file will prevent your machine from booting. Hiding a system volume or a boot volume with a currently running operating system is disabled in order to retain your machine bootability. To hide a volume 1. Right-click the volume you need to hide, and then click Hide volume.
If the volume has mount points, they will be removed automatically. Click OK to add the pending volume hiding operation. To unhide a volume 1. Right-click the hidden volume you need to unhide, and then click Unhide volume. The program automatically assigns the first vacant drive letter to this volume. Click OK to add the pending volume unhiding operation. All of a files information, with the exception of its actual name and data, is stored in the i-node.
Each file has its own i-node. Each i-node contains a file description, including number, file type, size, data block pointers, etc. Space for i-nodes is allocated when you install the operating system or when a new file system is created. The maximum number of i-nodes, and hence the maximum number of files, is set at file system creation.
Running out of i-nodes prohibits the creation of additional files and directories on the volume even if there is sufficient disk space. I-nodes themselves consume disk space, so specifying the i-node density lets you organize disk space in the optimal way.
I-node density is determined by specifying the number of bytes per i-node. Usually, the default value is bytes per i-node. Important: If you change the i-node density of a boot volume the operating system will become unbootable. To restore the system bootability use a boot loader. To specify i-node density 1. In Bytes per i-node, specify the required value. This will allocate more space for files and less for i-nodes. This will allocate more space for i-nodes and less for data. The more i-nodes there are in the file system, the less likely you will not run of i-nodes.
Click OK to add the pending i-node density changing operation. In this section Disk initialization The newly detected disks appear in the disks and volumes list as Not initialized. To initialize a disk or disks 1. Right-click the newly added disk or any of newly added disks , and then click Initialize. In the Disk Initialization window, select the other not initialized disks if there are several , and set the disk partitioning scheme MBR or GPT and the disk type basic or dynamic for every selected disk.
Click OK to add the pending disk initialization operation. After the initialization, all the disk space remains unallocated and so still impossible to be used for program installation or file storage. To be able to use it, you need to either create a new volume—see Creating a volume p. If you decide to change the disk settings it can be done later using Acronis Disk Director The cloning operation transfers all the source disk data to a target disk.
Otherwise, the machine might not be able to boot from the target disk. To clone a basic disk 1. The program displays a list of partitioned disks and asks you to select the source disk, from which data will be transferred to another disk.
In the Select a disk as target for the cloning operation window, select a basic disk as target for the cloning operation. The program enables you to select a target disk if its size is sufficient to hold all the data from the source disk without any loss. If there is some data on the target disk, you will receive a warning stating that this data will be lost after the cloning. So, if the target disk is the same size and even larger, it is possible to transfer all the information there exactly as it is stored at the source.
When cloning to a larger target disk, the remaining space becomes unallocated. The program will automatically increase or decrease if possible the size of the volumes with respect to the target disk size. Thus, no unallocated space appears on the target disk. Note for smaller target disks: the program analyzes the target disk to establish whether its size will be sufficient to hold all the data from the source disk without any loss.
If such transfer with proportional resizing of the source disk volumes is possible, then you will be allowed to proceed. If due to the size limitations safe transfer of all the source disk data to the target disk is impossible even with the proportional resizing of the volumes, then the Clone basic disk operation will be impossible and you will not be able to continue.
If you are about to clone a disk containing the system volume, pay attention to the Advanced options, described later in this section. Click Finish to add the pending disk cloning operation The results of the pending operation are immediately displayed as if the operation had been performed.
Using advanced options When cloning a disk containing the system volume, you need to retain operating system bootability on the target disk volume, by copying the original disk\’s NT signature. For the operating system to remain bootable, the target disk must have the same NT signature as the source disk. Important: Two disks with the same NT signature cannot work properly under one operating system.
After cloning the disk and copying the NT signature, you should remove one of the disks from the machine. If you need to copy the NT signature: 1. Select the Copy NT signature check box.
You receive the warning stating that you will have to remove one of the two hard disk drives from the machine. The Turn off the machine after the cloning operation check box is selected and disabled automatically.
Click Finish to add the pending operation. Click Commit on the toolbar and then click Proceed in the Pending Operations window. Wait until the task is finished. Wait until the machine is turned off. Disconnect either the source or the target hard disk drive from the machine.
Start up the machine. If you need to leave an NT signature: 1. Click to clear the Copy NT signature check box, if necessary. Important: If you have a primary volume, belonging to an MBR disk, and convert the disk first to GPT and then back to MBR, the volume will be logical and will not be able to be used as a boot volume.
You can convert this volume to primary, as described in Converting a logical volume to primary p. Note: A GPT-partitioned disk reserves the space at the end of the partitioned area necessary for the backup area, which stores copies of the GPT header and the partition table. If the disk is full and the volume size cannot be automatically decreased, the conversion of the MBR disk to GPT will fail.
If you plan to install an operating system that does not support GPT disks, the reverse conversion of the disk to MBR is also possible through the same menu items. The name of the operation will be listed as Convert to MBR. However, you can perform the following conversions to reach the goal using the program: 1.
MBR disk conversion: dynamic to basic using the Convert to basic operation. GPT disk conversion: basic to dynamic using the Convert to dynamic operation.
For example, if such conversion will stop the disk from being accessed by the system, the operating system will stop loading after such conversion or some volumes on the selected GPT disk will not be accessible with MBR e. To convert a basic disk to dynamic 1. Right-click the basic disk you want to convert, and then click Convert to dynamic.
You will receive a final warning about the basic disk being converted to dynamic. Click OK to add the pending basic to dynamic disk conversion operation. Note: A dynamic disk uses the last megabyte of the physical disk to store the database, including the four-level description Volume-Component-Partition-Disk for each dynamic volume.
If during the conversion to dynamic it turns out that the basic disk is full and the size of its volumes cannot be decreased automatically, the basic disk to dynamic conversion operation will fail. Should you decide to revert your dynamic disks back to basic ones—for example, if you want to start using an operating system on your machine that does not support dynamic disks—you can convert your disks using the same menu items, though the operation now will be named Convert to basic.
System disk conversion The program does not require an operating system reboot after conversion of a basic disk that contains one or more boot volumes to dynamic if: 1. The machine runs this operating system. Caution: The conversion of a disk containing boot volumes takes a certain amount of time.
Any power loss, unintentional turning off of the machine or accidental pressing of the Reset button during the procedure could result in bootability loss. For machines where more than one operating system is installed, the program ensures bootability of each of the operating systems.
This operation is available only for a dynamic disk that is empty or contains only one or more simple volumes, with each simple volume occupying a single region on the disk.
These volumes will become basic volumes. To convert a dynamic disk to basic 1. Right-click the dynamic disk you need to convert, and then click Convert to basic. You will receive a final warning about the dynamic disk being converted to basic.
You will be advised about the changes that will happen to the system if the chosen disk is converted from dynamic to basic. Click OK to add the pending dynamic to basic disk conversion operation. After the conversion the last 8 MB of disk space is reserved for the future conversion of the disk from basic to dynamic. In some cases the possible unallocated space and the proposed maximum volume size might differ for example, when the size of one mirror establishes the size of the other mirror, or the last 8 MB of disk space is reserved for the future conversion of the disk from basic to dynamic.
Boot disk conversion The program does not require an operating system reboot after dynamic to basic conversion of the disk, if: 1. The online status means that a basic or dynamic disk is accessible in the read-write mode.
You may need to change an online disk to offline in order to protect it from unintentional use, for example a disk is corrupted or has bad sectors. To make a disk offline 1. Right click the online disk, and then click Change status to offline. In the appearing window, click OK to confirm the operation. The disk you took offline also becomes Missing. To recover Mirrored volumes, you need to take the offline disk online, and then reactivate it.
The offline status means that a dynamic disk is accessible in the read-only mode. You may need to change an offline disk to online to make the disk that you switched to offline previously fully accessed.
To make a disk online 1. Right click the offline disk, and then click Change status to online. If the dynamic disk has the offline status and the disk\’s name is Missing, this means that the disk cannot be located or identified by the operating system. It may be corrupted, disconnected, or powered off.
Normally, all dynamic disks created within the same machine and operating system are members of the same disk group. When moved to another machine, or added to another operating system on the same machine, a disk group is considered as foreign. Foreign group disks cannot be used until they are imported into the existing disk group. A foreign group is imported as is will have the original name if no disk group exists on the machine.
To access data on foreign disks, you have to add these disks to your machine\’s system configuration using the Import foreign disks operation. All dynamic disks of the foreign disk group are imported at the same time, you cannot import just one dynamic disk. To import foreign disks 1.
Right-click one of the foreign disks, and then click Import foreign disks. The appearing window lists all foreign dynamic disks that were added to the machine, and displays information about volumes that will be imported.
Volume statuses lets you detect whether you are importing all the required disks of the disk group. When importing all the required disks, all their volumes have the Healthy status. Statuses other than Healthy indicate that not all of the disks were imported. Click OK to add the pending foreign disks importing operation.
The Logical Disk Manager LDM database keeps information about the missing disk because such disk might contain parts of dynamic volumes, such as mirrored volumes, that can be repaired.
If the disk can be reconnected or turned on, all you need to recover its functionality is to reactivate the disk. If the missing disk cannot be reactivated, or you would like to completely delete this disk from disk group, you can remove the disk from the LDM database. Before removing a missing disk you have to delete p. However, if the disk contains any mirrored volumes, you can save them using the Remove mirror p. To remove a missing dynamic disk 1.
Right-click the disk with the Missing status, and then click Remove missing disk. Click OK to add the pending disk removal operation. All volumes, even those spanning across other disks, are erased from the disks and the space that was occupied by these volumes becomes unallocated space.
To be able to use the cleared up disk, you need to initialize it once again. To clean up a disk 1. Right-click the disk you need to clean up, and then click Clean up disk. Click OK to add the pending disk clean up operation. Note: If you accidentally cleared an MBR disk with important data, it is still possible to recover the volumes on this disk by using Acronis Recovery Expert p.
But do not forget to initialize the disk and set MBR partitioning scheme first. After reading this section, you will have learned how to create bootable media in order to use Acronis Disk Director on bare metal or outside of an operating system, and how to recover deleted or lost volumes. In this section Acronis Bootable Media Builder You can create bootable media using Acronis Bootable Media Builder. There are situations in which you might prefer to run Acronis Disk Director from bootable media.
If you have other Acronis products, such as Acronis True Image Home, installed on your machine, you can also include bootable versions of these programs on the same bootable media.
Linux-based bootable media Linux-based media contains bootable version of Acronis Disk Director based on Linux kernel. It can boot and perform operations on any PC-compatible hardware, including bare metal and machines with corrupted or non-supported file systems. Media based on WinPE allows for dynamic loading of the necessary device drivers. Bootable Media Builder can also create an ISO image of a bootable disk to burn it later on a blank disk. In the Bootable media type, choose Linux-based.
It provides access to dynamic LDM volumes. The wizard will guide you through the necessary operations. Please refer to Linux-based bootable media p. To create PE 4. Install the Microsoft. NET Framework v. Install Windows AIK from this kit.
To install Windows ADK: 1. Run the setup file and follow the wizard\’s steps. Separate multiple parameters with spaces. The type of media to create. Path to the media ISO file. Kernel parameters This window lets you specify one or more parameters of the Linux kernel. They will be automatically applied when the bootable media starts. These parameters are typically used when experiencing problems while working with the bootable media.
Normally, you can leave this field empty. You can also specify any of these parameters by pressing F11 while in the boot menu. Parameters When specifying multiple parameters, separate them with spaces. You may want to use this parameter when experiencing problems with a particular hardware configuration. Without the vga parameter, the video mode is detected automatically. This parameter is implicitly specified when creating the bootable media, but you can remove this parameter while in the boot menu.
Without this parameter, all startup messages will be displayed, followed by a command prompt. USB 1. Prevents the kernel from freezing on some hardware.
You may want to use this parameter if the machine has a non-standard PCI host bridge. You may want to use this parameter when the bootable media fails to start, which may be caused by the BIOS. You may want to use this parameter if the kernel is unable to allocate interrupt requests IRQs or discover secondary PCI buses on the motherboard.
These calls might not work properly on some machines. But this may be the only way to get the interrupt routing table. This comes in handy when you have to add the plug-in to the previously configured PE ISO that is already in use. If you do not have such machine, prepare as described in How to create bootable media. These WnPE distributions can also work on x64 hardware. Select Bootable media type: Windows PE. Once you boot a machine into Windows PE, the drivers can help you access the device where the backup archive is located.
You will have to repeat this procedure for each driver you want to be included in the resulting WinPE boot media. Specify the full path to the resulting image file including the file name. Check your settings in the summary screen and click Proceed.
Burn the. The difference is as follows: 1. The Check volume p. Specify the disk layout p. For bare metal, or if no Windows operating system is found, the disk layout will be used according to the bootable media environment Linux-based or Windows PE. The Linux-based bootable media shows local disks and volumes as unmounted sda1, sda The log lifetime is limited to the current session. You can save the entire log or the filtered log entries to a file.
If, for some reason, the video mode is detected incorrectly, do the following: 1. In the boot menu, press F From the list of supported video modes, choose the appropriate one by typing its number for example, , and then press ENTER.
In case your volumes are damaged and the machine fails to boot—for example, after a power outage or a system error—use the bootable version of Acronis Disk Director and run Acronis Recovery Expert. It will help you to recover boot sectors and partition tables on hard disks and make your system bootable again. The Recovery Expert first attempts to recover volumes \”as is\”, i. If the primary volume cannot be recovered as is, it will be recovered as logical.
Also, if the logical volume cannot be recovered as is, it will be recovered as primary. Recovering volumes in automatic mode The automatic mode is easy to use and requires minimal effort. The program will try to find and recover all the deleted volumes on all basic disks. In the Recovery mode window, choose Automatic. In the Searching for deleted volumes window, Acronis Recovery Expert scans all the basic disks for deleted volumes.
First, Acronis Recovery Expert checks your disks for unallocated space. If there is no unallocated space, you will be asked to close the Recovery Expert. If unallocated space is found, then the Recovery Expert starts searching for traces of deleted volumes. The Recovery Expert checks the beginning of each side of every cylinder of every disk for boot sectors. A boot sector is the first sector of a volume that contains information about this volume, even after its deletion.
Once a deleted volume is found, it will be displayed in the volume list. The search will, however, continue until all the remaining disks are scanned. Only after the search is completed, the Next button becomes enabled, and you can proceed to the next window.
Note: you cannot select volumes to recover in the automatic mode. Acronis Recovery Expert will recover all the discovered deleted volumes.
If the search is completed with no result, you will be asked to either perform the search using the Complete method, or to finish searching and close the application. With the complete method, the program scans each sector on every hard disk. It is more thorough and may take a long time to perform. If there are no volumes found with the complete method, you will be asked to close the Recovery Expert. The Recovered Volumes window displays the volumes to recover as a part of the hard disk volume structure.
Make sure that all the required volumes are properly placed in the hard disk structure, and then click Next. Click Proceed to start recovering the volumes.
You will be able to specify the searching method, disks to search on, and volumes to recover. In the Recovery mode window, choose Manual. In the Unallocated Space Selection window, select unallocated space on basic disks where the deleted volumes used to be located. If you are not sure about the location of the deleted volumes, select all the unallocated spaces on all the basic disks. It takes less time, and should find all deleted volumes in most cases.
It is more thorough and requires much more time to perform than the Fast method. In the Searching for deleted volumes window, Acronis Recovery Expert scans all the selected hard disk drives for deleted volumes. If no volumes are found, you will be asked to close the Recovery Expert.
The program can even find and display intersected volumes, that is, volumes that were created and deleted on the disk at different times. Moreover, every successive volume allocates space from the previously deleted volume, but not at the beginning of it. Only one of the intersected volumes can be recovered. Unlike the automatic recovery mode, you do not have to wait until the whole search is finished using the manual mode.
As soon as a located volume or multiple volumes are added to the list, you can select them for immediate recovery. Selecting a volume changes its status to Undeleted and enables the Next button. The Recovered Volumes window displays the volumes to recover as a part of the hard disk volume structure, marking them with an icon in the upper right corner of its rectangle. Make certain that all the selected volumes are properly placed in the hard disk structure, and then click Next. This program has much to offer to a computer novice as well.
For example, it can be used as an educational tool. Working with Acronis Disk Editor requires a thorough understanding of the hard disk structure, file systems, operating systems, partitioning schemes and principles of data storage organization.
Complete instructions concerning the organization of data storage, and the interaction of hard disks with operating systems and applications, is not within the scope of these documentation. When editing disks and volumes, you should be certain of your actions. Also, your machine operability may be severely affected the operating system will stop loading, applications will stop running. In this section Starting work with Acronis Disk Editor Connect the console to the machine where Acronis Disk Director Agent is installed.
In the disk management area, right-click a disk or volume, and then click Edit. This will start Acronis Disk Editor, providing access to its operations. By default, the main window of the program displays the selected volume or disk in the hexadecimal Hex mode. Using controls While all the operations can be accessed from the menu, the most frequently used operations are available on the toolbar.
You can switch between various main window view modes. There are other available shortcut keys. The list of encodings is used to interpret the hard disk sector content. You can edit hard disk data directly in the fields of any view mode — see View p. Let us consider the disk editing in the As Hex view mode. Selecting data Any view mode lets you select blocks of disk sectors with the mouse or with the keyboard.
Place the mouse pointer at the necessary sector byte and drag it to create a block selection around the outside of all the bytes that you want to select. Place the cursor at the necessary sector byte. Press and hold the Shift key and use the arrow keys or Page Up and Page Down keys to create a selection.
Hint: Pressing the End key while holding the Shift selects the entire disk sector. Editing disk data Point the cursor to the block that you need to edit in the hexadecimal or character area in the main window. Then, enter the required value. In other view modes, you should edit values in the appropriate fields. Use the Undo menu item to discard the last one or more changes. Undo all discards all the changes you made. Saving your changes The changes you made will not be applied to the given disk sector immediately.
Be sure to click Save sector for changes to take effect. Attention: After saving changes you will not be able to undo them. If you do not save your changes, you effectively reject them. If you have made changes in a hard disk sector and decide to exit the editor without saving them, you will see a warning prompting you to save your changes. Writing a block to a file Not available under Linux-based bootable media The Write to file menu item lets you to save the selected block to a file.
It is a good practice to save the selected blocks before you begin to edit them. This will help you to revert changes made to the given hard disk sectors and to restore the data. To save a disk sector block to a file 1. Select the block that you need to save, and then click Write to file.
In the Write to file window, click Browse and specify the path and file name. Click OK to save the file. Tip: You can create a selection right in the Write to file window: in the Size filed, specify the the number of bytes that will be selected from the current cursor position.
To read a block from a file 1. Place the cursor to the necessary sector byte, and click Read from file. In the Read from file window, click Browse and specify the file.
The file content will be inserted to a sector from the current cursor position. You can select the appropriate view mode with the help of the View menu. Other modes that represent some kind of patterns for viewing data let you work with decoded values of bytes or groups of bytes. You will be able to see the stages of disk data storage formation while the standard disk volume is being created and formatted and while files and folders are being created. Additionally, in the View menu, you can hide or show the status bar and toolbar.
A search line can be set both as char and as numeric hexadecimal values. During a search, you can ignore letter case as well as search for a given line at a given offset inside the sector.
The disk data is interpreted according to the encoding selected. If you selected a search mode without a matching case letter, both the case and elements above the characters will be ignored. After the search process is finished, the current position will be moved to where a line was found, or will remain the same if no lines were found.
You can search for the next line by pressing the F3 key. The transition is performed by entering an absolute sector offset, or by entering cylinder, head and sector numbers. The master boot record MBR is located in the first sector of the hard disk and stores information about the hard disk partitioning and code that is loaded with BIOS. Information stored in the MBR is crucial for the machine booting.
If the MBR code is corrupted due to boot sector viruses or human error, the machine becomes unbootable and you cannot access the data stored on the hard disks. By having the MBR code copy saved in a safe place, you will protect your machine against such disasters. Even if your machine fails to boot normally, you can boot it by using WinPE-based bootable media created with Acronis Bootable Media Builder.
Thus, the machine bootability will be completely restored. The following describes how you can save the MBR code copy and restore it in case failure. Step 1. Saving MBR 1. Place the cursor at the very beginning of the first sector byte Absolute sector 0, or in Hex. Then, hold down the Shift key and use the arrow keys to select the first bytes of the sector.
This will select the MBR code and disk signature. The exact cursor position is displayed in the Position field on the status bar in the bottom-right corner of the window. Select the Write to file item in the Edit menu. Step 2. Restoring MBR 1.
Create a WinPE-based bootable media in order to be able to restore the system in case of failure. Bootable media is created with Acronis Bootable Media Builder as described in How to create bootable media.
Boot the machine with the bootable media and run Acronis Disk Director. Right-click the disk whose MBR you need to restore and then click Edit. Place the cursor at the very beginning of the first sector byte Absolute sector 0, or in Hex , and then click Read from file. The file content will be inserted into a sector from the current cursor position. Reboot the machine. You need to copy the source disk\’s MBR code, if you move the system volume from this disk to a target disk that does not have MBR or has a different loader.
To copy the MBR to another disk 1. Often users forget that private information must be completely destroyed to avoid unauthorized access to it. Simply deleting an old file is not sufficient. Windows tools do not guarantee data destruction. Deleted files can be restored easily. Formatting and even deleting a partition leaves hard disk sector contents the same. Acronis Disk Editor can be used as a simple and reliable tool for complete wiping hard disk data. To wipe disk data 1.
In Acronis Disk Director, right-click the disk whose data you need to destroy, and then click Edit. Click Fill and enter the 0 zero fill value. Click OK and then confirm the operation. Be careful! After you confirm the operation, all the disk data will be deleted completely and you will not be able to recover it unless you have backups of this disk made with Acronis disk backup and recovery solutions. Restoring files with Acronis Disk Editor is a bit tricky and requires some hex editor working skills.
To restore a file, you need to obtain some distinctive information about it from the Hex view. This information will help you to locate the file when searching for it in Hex view. The following example describes how to restore a couple of. Prerequisites: 1. The files had been located on the volume My Data G: before it was formatted. These images were taken by the certain type of camera. Files were stored as units and they were not overwritten by another data.
To restore files 1. In a file manager that supports Hex, open an existing. Our goal is to find some information that can be used to distinguish these. Lets open a similar. As we can see in character area, this. Normally, when taking a picture the camera writes information about the manufacturer in every. This information is usually stored at the beginning of every file. Thus, by knowing how the file begins and ends plus having information about the manufacturer, we have enough information to distinguish our.
In Acronis Disk Director, right-click the formatted volume G: that stored the file you need to restore, and then click Edit. Then, select the Western Windows encoding on the toolbar. Then, enter JFIF in the search field. When this value is found, take a look at the lines below to see information about the camera manufacturer.
Once the required data is found, create a selection as follows. Select the beginning of the sector where the JFIF letter combination appears.
Then hold down the Shift key and use the arrow keys or Page Up and Page Down keys to select the rest of sectors up to the end of the sector where the OLF letter combination is. Open this file in any image viewer. If you see the image, then you did everything right. If you do not see the image, make sure that you select the image data exactly as described in step 5.
To restore another. If no operating systems other than Windows are installed on your machine, the active volume is typically the same as the system volume p. If an operating system other than Windows, such as Linux, is installed on your machine, the active volume can be the volume where the program known as a boot loader, such as GRUB, is stored. The active volume is either a primary volume p. Only one volume on a disk can be active. The active volume on a basic disk is also called the active partition.
Allocation unit See Cluster p. B Bad cluster A cluster p. It is not possible to store data in or retrieve it from such cluster. Bad sector A sector p. Basic disk A disk that can be accessed by all versions of Windows, as well as by other operating systems. A basic disk can store one or more volumes p.
A basic disk can be converted to a dynamic disk. Basic volume A volume on a basic disk p. A basic volume can be primary p.
Boot sector The first sector p. The boot sector must end with a hexadecimal signature of 0xAA Boot volume The volume which contains files that are necessary for a particular Windows operating system to start and work. If only one Windows operating system is installed on your machine, the boot volume is usually the same as the system volume p. If more than one Windows operating system is installed on your machine, each of these operating systems normally has its own boot volume, whereas there is still only one system volume.
In terms of volume type, a boot volume can be a primary or logical volume on a basic disk, or a simple volume on a dynamic disk. See also system volume p. These servers with uploaded bootable components can also be thought of as a kind of bootable media. Bootable media is most often used to create basic or dynamic volumes on bare metal.
Booting The process of starting a machine when the machine is turned on or reset. When the machine boots, its hardware runs a program known as a boot loader, which in turn starts the selected operating system.
A machine that cannot boot normally—for example, because a volume with the operating system is not available—is called unbootable. Some operations, such as resizing the system volume in Windows, require rebooting the machine.
C Cluster The unit of disk space allocation to store files in a file system. The typical size of a cluster is 4 KB. When formatting a volume, you can choose the cluster size for it.
Smaller cluster sizes allow for more efficient storage of smaller files by reducing the amount of wasted disk space; but larger files may become more fragmented across the volume, which may increase the amount of time that is needed to access them. A cluster is also known as an allocation unit. Physically, a cluster is one or more usually eight sectors on a disk. Cylinder A group of all tracks p. Access to the data inside one cylinder is much faster than moving the head from one cylinder to another.
D Defragmentation The process of rearranging files on a volume to reduce fragmentation p. Disk A storage device, often a magnetic storage medium, which is attached to a machine. Examples of disks include hard disks and floppy disks. Disk group A number of dynamic disks that store the common configuration data in their Logical Disk Manager LDM databases and therefore can be managed as a whole.
Normally, all dynamic disks created within the same machine are members of the same disk group. The next created or imported disks are added to the same disk group.
The group exists as long as at least one of its members exists. Once the last dynamic disk is disconnected or converted to basic, the group is discontinued, though its name is kept in the above registry key.
In case a dynamic disk is created or connected again, a disk group with an incremental name is created. When moved to another machine, a disk group is considered as foreign p. The import updates the configuration data on both the local and the foreign disks so that they form a single entity. A disk has one of two types: basic disk p. Drive A physical device for accessing information on a disk p. Examples of drives include hard disk drives p.
Drive letter See Volume letter p. Use of LDM helps to flexibly allocate volumes on a disk for fault tolerance, better performance or larger volume size. Each dynamic disk has a hidden database where the LDM stores the configuration of all dynamic volumes existing in the disk group, which makes for better storage reliability.
Dynamic volumes provide greater functionality as compared to basic volumes; but older operating systems, such as Windows 98, might not be able to work with them. Different types of dynamic volumes suit different purposes.
F Fault tolerance The ability of a volume to ensure data integrity after a hardware failure. Fault tolerance is usually achieved by introducing data redundancy, which enables preserving data in case one of the hard disks containing the volume fails. Examples of fault-tolerant volumes include mirrored p. File A set of data, such as a text document, that is stored under an identifying name—for example: Document. In different file systems, files can be stored in different ways, with different file name requirements and different ways to write the full path to the file in the folder p.
File system A data structure that is used to store and manage files p. A file system tracks free and occupied space, supports folders p. Examples of file systems that are supported in Linux are ext2 and ext3. When formatting p. A folder can contain other folders sometimes called subfolders. In the file system p. Such a structure allows creation of a folder tree that begins with the root folder p.
Foreign disk A dynamic disk which is a part of a foreign dynamic disk group p. Foreign dynamic disk group A group of dynamic disks that is not native for the currently running operating system.
To be able to use such disks, you need to import them to the existing disk group on the machine. Formatting The process of creating a file system on a volume. After the volume is formatted, you can place files and folders on it. Fragmentation The scattering of parts of a file across different areas of the volume. As a result of adding, deleting, and changing files, many files can occupy space on the volume in multiple non-contiguous pieces. This requires more time to access such files.
The defragmentation p. Free space Space on a volume that is not occupied by data such as files and folders. Not to be confused with unallocated space p. G GPT disk A disk whose partitioning scheme p. See also MBR disk p. See in Partitioning scheme p. A hard disk is also called a hard disk drive. Hidden volume A volume p.
Hiding a volume is usually done by changing its partition type p. I Initialization The process of registering a disk in the operating system. Initialization involves assigning a partitioning scheme p. Initialization is usually performed when you add a new hard disk drive to the machine.
L Logical drive See Logical volume p. Logical volume A volume which is located on a basic MBR disk p. Logical volumes usually store user data and sometimes the files that are used by the installed operating systems. Unlike the number of primary volumes, the number of logical volumes on the disk is unlimited. A logical volume is also called a logical drive.
M Machine A physical or virtual computer uniquely identified by an operating system installation. Master boot record partitioning scheme One of the two partitioning schemes of a disk. See Partitioning scheme p. Master boot record sector The first sector p. This sector usually stores information about the hard disk partitioning p.
It also stores a small program that initiates the booting p. MBR disk A disk whose partitioning scheme p. Media builder A dedicated tool for creating bootable media. Mirror Each of the two portions of disk space that make up a mirrored volume p.
Each mirror occupies a separate hard disk. Both mirrors are identical in size and content, which ensures fault tolerance in case a hard disk with one of the mirrors fails. The operation of converting a simple volume p. For example, a partition type of 07h identifies a volume whose file system is NTFS. For example, changing the partition type of an NTFS volume to 17h makes that volume hidden. Partitioning The process of creating a logical structure on a hard disk p.
Partitioning usually involves creating one or more volumes p. Acronis Disk Director is an example of a program that can perform partitioning. Partitioning scheme The method of organizing volumes on a disk. Partitioning scheme is also known as partitioning style or partition style. Physical disk A disk p. Primary partition See Primary volume p. Primary volume A volume which is located on a portion of a basic disk p. Primary volumes often store files that are necessary to start the machine or an operating system.
Many operating systems can start only from a primary volume. The number of primary volumes on the disk is limited and depends on the partitioning scheme p. A primary volume is also called a primary partition. Starting from the root folder, you can uniquely describe the file p. In this example, the Windows folder is a subfolder of the root folder, the System32 folder is a subfolder of the Windows folder, and the Vmm S Sector The smallest information unit on a disk p.
Usually, a sector is bytes in size. Stripe Each of the several equally-sized portions of disk space that make up a striped volume p. Each stripe occupies a separate hard disk. A striped volume consists of two or more stripes.
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Download Acronis Disk Director Now! Features and Highlights Manipulate Manage your data, whether you are splitting, resizing, converting, or merging volumes. Create, convert, and copy files and volumes as needed.
Partition Mapping hard drives and creating partitions are made easy, allowing you to do more in less time. Format, label and make your partitions active in one easy step reducing time spent and risk of errors.
Format Let Acronis DiskDirector make complex operations easy and more efficient with an intuitively designed user interface. Recover Volume recovery is an easy to use tool that lets you recover volumes that were accidentally deleted or damaged due to a hardware failure.
Learn more Clone Clone disk to a replacement HDD. No need to spend hours installing your old disk\’s operating system and applications. Disk cloning returns you to action on the new disk in just minutes Install The ability to SPLIT your existing single volume into two volumes, and install a second operating system into the second volume.
Convert As your requirements change, you can quickly convert between basic and dynamic disks in just moments. Span Span volume across multiple physical disks – Supports up to 32 disks. Access Acronis Disk Editor allows direct byte accessing and editing capabilities on your disk. After that trial period usually 15 to 90 days the user can decide whether to buy the software or not. Even though, most trial software products are only time-limited some also have feature limitations.
Usually commercial software or games are produced for sale or to serve a commercial purpose. To make sure your data and your privacy are safe, we at FileHorse check all software installation files each time a new one is uploaded to our servers or linked to remote server. Based on the checks we perform the software is categorized as follows:. This file has been scanned with VirusTotal using more than 70 different antivirus software products and no threats have been detected. It\’s very likely that this software is clean and safe for use.
There are some reports that this software is potentially malicious or may install other unwanted bundled software. These could be false positives and our users are advised to be careful while installing this software.
It\’s very likely that this is software is malicious or contains unwanted bundled software. Users are advised look for alternatives for this software or be extremely careful when installing and using this software. This software is no longer available for the download.
This could be due to the program being discontinued , having a security issue or for other reasons. Award-winning disk management software for Windows PC! Join our mailing list Stay up to date with latest software releases, news, software discounts, deals and more. Free Download. If clusters are not aligned with sectors, the volumes are misaligned.
Misalignment decreases the overall system performance and hardware lifetime. The volume start is aligned to byte sectors. Usually, a track consists of 63 physical sectors. Since the first track is reserved for the master boot record MBR and other service purposes, the first volume starts from the beginning of the second track of the disk. Therefore, volumes aligned by 63 sectors are not aligned with 4-KB sectors: 63 sectors by bytes do not match with the integer number of 4-KB sectors.
Thus, the first created volume and all of the following volumes on the hard disk drive will be misaligned. Why misalignment is an important issue for hard disk drives When a single bit of data is changed, the operating system entirely overwrites the cluster that contains the changed data. But if misalignment occurs, the cluster will overlap more physical sectors than it would have occupied if aligned.
As a result, more physical sectors need to be erased and rewritten each time data changes. For SSD drives misalignment decreases not only system performance, but also drive lifetime. How to avoid volume misalignment The latest operating systems, starting from Windows Vista, already support the new sector size. Thus, volumes created with these operating systems will be properly aligned. Many hard disk drive manufacturers supply their modern drives with controllers that can shift addressing offset to one sector 63 sector becomes 64 sector , so volumes will appear aligned.
There are no volumes on this drive yet. If you start creating volumes on this disk using Windows XP, you may experience some slowdown of the system performance while accessing the disk. To ensure proper volume alignment and normal access to volumes on this disk, perform the following steps: 1.
Create a bootable media with Acronis Disk Director—see How to create bootable media. Select the Bootable media OS disk layout—see Disk layout p. Create volumes—see Creating a volume p. After the volumes are created, you can perform other operations with them including changing their size under any disk layout. Volumes already contain data. To align the misaligned volumes on the disk using Acronis Disk Director, clone this disk to another and then clone it back—see Disk cloning p.
After cloning, Acronis Disk Director shifts the first volume start with 1MB offset, all the disk volumes will be aligned properly.
In this section Precautions Back up the disk whose volumes will be created or managed. Having your most important data backed up to another hard disk or CD will allow you to work on disk volumes being reassured that your data is safe. Acronis has an extremely effective comprehensive data backup and recovery solution — Acronis True Image.
It creates a data or disk backup copy stored in a compressed archive file that can be restored in case of an accident. Check volumes p.
This means no other disk management utilities such as the Windows Disk Management utility can access it at that time. With these simple precautions, you will protect yourself against accidental data loss. In the disk management area, examine the current layout of disks and volumes.
Add one or more management operations on disks and volumes to the queue of pending operations. These operations will take effect only after you commit them. In the disk management area, examine how the layout of disks and volumes will look when the pending operations are completed.
Commit the pending operations. Some operations, such as changing the size of a volume from which Windows starts, may require restarting the machine. Running Acronis Disk Director from a bootable media Acronis Disk Director has a bootable version that can be run on a bare metal system, or on a crashed machine that cannot boot normally, or even on a non-Windows system, like Linux. While working under bootable media p.
Menu The menu provides access to all the actions, tools and settings of Acronis Disk Director. Toolbar The toolbar displays the current disk layout p.
Disk Management view The disk management area contains the table of disks and volumes and the graphical panel. Table The table lists all the disks and their volumes and lets you select any of them to perform operations. You can sort volumes by columns.
Click the column\’s header to sort the volumes in ascending order. Click it once again to sort the volumes in descending order. If required, you can hide the shown columns and show the hidden ones. To show or hide columns 1. Right-click any column header to open the context menu. The menu items that are ticked off correspond to the column headers presented in the table.
Graphical panel The graphical panel provides visual information about all the disks and their volumes for better understanding of the volume configuration. The graphical panel also lets you select both the volumes and disks to perform operations on them. Actions and tools pane Provides quick access to the operations that can be performed on the selected disk or volume see Volume operations p.
The status helps you to estimate the condition of a disk or volume. Disk statuses are displayed in the graphical panel below their capacity. This is the normal disk status. You can change an online disk to offline—see Changing a disk status: online to offline. If a disk has errors, we recommended you to repair it as soon as possible to avoid data loss.
You can make the disk that you previously switched to offline, fully accessible—see Changing a disk status: offline to online. To access data on foreign disks, you have to add these disks to your machine\’s system configuration—see Importing foreign disks p.
After you install a new disk, the disk must be registered in the operating system—see Disk initialization. Only then, you can create volumes on that disk. To find out more information about disk statuses, please refer to the Disk status descriptions article on the Microsoft website.
For instructions explaining how to repair disks with an Online Errors , Offline, or Missing status, please refer to the Troubleshooting Disk Management article on the Microsoft website. Volume statuses appear both in the table and graphical panel. This is the normal volume status. The Healthy status often has a number of substatuses that are displayed in the table view in parentheses and in the graphical view below the volume size and separated by a semicolon. The System, Boot and Active substatuses are the most common and described in the Active, system, and boot volumes p.
You can access the volume until the remaining dynamic disk is online. To avoid data loss, we recommend you to repair the volume as soon as possible. To find out more information about disk statuses, please refer to the Volume status descriptions article on the Microsoft website. For instructions explaining how to repair volumes with erroneous statuses, please refer to the Troubleshooting Disk Management article on the Microsoft website.
A volume may have a different letter in different Windows operating systems. For example, volume E: might appear as D: or L: when you boot another Windows operating system installed on the same machine. It is also possible that this volume will have the same letter E: under any Windows operating system installed on the machine. Moreover, a dynamic disk created in one Windows operating system is considered as a Foreign Disk in another Windows operating system or might even be unsupported by this operating system.
When you need to perform a disk management operation on such machine, it is necessary to specify for which operating system the disk management operation will be performed, i. Click the operating system name to select another operating system in the Operating System Selection window. Under bootable media, this window appears immediately after Acronis Disk Director is launched.
The disk layout will be displayed according to the operating system you select. To perform any operation 1. Note: the list of available actions in the Actions menu, the context menu and the Actions pane depends on the selected volume or disk type. The same also applies to unallocated space. You will be forwarded to the operation specific window, or the wizard page, where you have to specify the operation\’s settings.
Click OK. The operation will not be performed immediately, but will be considered pending p. You can prepare a sequence of operations to be performed on disks and volumes. All pending operations will be performed only after you commit them. Nevertheless, the results of any pending disk or volume operation are immediately displayed in the product main window.
For example, if you create a volume, it will be immediately shown in the table view at the top, as well as in the graphical view at the bottom. Any volume changes, including changing the volume letter or label, are also immediately displayed.
While an operation is pending it can be easily undone and redone—see Undoing pending operations p. Until then, Acronis Disk Director will only demonstrate the new volume structure that will result from the operations, planned to be performed on disks and volumes. This approach enables you to control all planned operations, double-check the intended changes, and, if necessary, undo operations before they are executed.
All pending operations are added to the pending operations list that can be viewed in the Pending operations window. To view and commit pending operations 1. On the toolbar, click Commit pending operations. In the Pending operations window, view and examine the list of pending operations. Click Proceed to execute the operations.
You will not be able to undo any operations after you choose to proceed the operation. To quit the Pending operations window without committing, click Cancel.
If you try to exit Acronis Disk Director while there are pending operations that are not yet committed, you will be asked whether you want to commit them. Quitting the program without committing the pending operations effectively cancels them. While the list is populated, this action is available. For instance, when you create a new volume, the respective entry is added to the log.
With the log, you can examine information about disk and volume operations, including reasons any for failures. Physically, a log is a collection of XML files stored on the machine.
Rebooting eliminates the log, but you can save the log to a file while the machine is booted with the media. You can also hide the unneeded columns and show the hidden ones. See the Filtering and sorting log entries p. The panel is collapsed by default. To expand the panel, click the chevron. The content of the panel is also duplicated in the Log entry details window.
All the operations described below are performed by clicking the corresponding items on the log toolbar. To Do Select a single log entry Click on it. All the entries between the first and last selections will be selected too. Select a log entry. The log entry\’s details will be displayed in a separate window. Save the selected log 1. Select a single log entry or multiple log entries. Click Save Selected to File. In the opened window, specify a path and a name for the file. Save all the log entries 1.
Make sure, that the filters p. Click Save All to File. Save all the filtered log 1. Set filters p. As a result, the log entries of that list will be saved. Delete all the log entries Click Clear Log. All the log entries will be deleted from the log, and a new log entry will be created. It will contain information about who deleted the entries and when.
To Do Display log entries for a 1. In the From field, select the date starting from which to display the log given time period entries.
In the To field, select the date up to which to display the log entries. As a result you will see that the list of log entries fully or just partly coincide with the entered value. Filter log entries by type Press or release the following toolbar buttons: to filter error messages to filter warning messages to filter information messages Sort log entries by date Click the column\’s header to sort the log entries in ascending order.
Click it and time; type; message once again to sort the log entries in descending order. Configuring the log table By default, the table has three columns that are displayed, the others are hidden.
You may want to provide this file when contacting Acronis technical support. To collect system information 1. Specify where to save the file with system information. Create a dynamic volume spanned or striped by using the Create volume p. How to increase a volume size at the expense of other volumes\’ unallocated space? Resize p. How to merge two volumes without losing your data?
Use the Merge operation. How to make the existing volume fault-tolerant? How to recover an accidentally deleted basic volume that has important data? Use the Recovery Expert p.
How to replace a hard disk without reinstalling the operating system and applications? Use the Clone p. How to move dynamic disks from one system to another? Use the Import foreign disks p. How to get quick access to the data stored on a Linux volume under Windows? Use the Browse files p. How to place files from a Linux volume into a folder on a Windows volume? Use the Merge operation, selecting the Windows volume as the main volume.
How to erase all information on the volume? Use the Format p. How to increase the system performance? Use the Defragmentation p. How to verify the logical integrity of a file system on a volume and repair any errors found? Use the Check p. How to explore data stored on a volume before performing any operation?
How to work with hard disk drives that use 4-KB sector size? Follow the guidelines described in the Volume alignment in disks having a 4-KB sector size section. How to save, copy and restore the MBR? Read the Usage examples p. How to change the volume\’s cluster size? Use the Change cluster size p. How clean up the disk? Use the Clean up disk p. In this section Creating a volume To create a new volume 1.
Run the Create Volume Wizard by right-clicking any unallocated space, and then click Create volume. Specify the type that the new volume will have. Every volume type is provided with a brief description to let you better understand the advantages and limitations of each possible volume type. To learn more about volume types—see Types of basic volumes p. The list of volume types contains only the types that are supported by the current operating system.
Note: You cannot create a basic volume on a disk that already has four primary volumes; you first need to convert one of those volumes to logical—see Converting a primary volume to logical p. This restriction does not apply to GPT disks. Note for striped and mirrored volumes: Because these volumes occupy space on their disks in equal parts, the maximum size of such volume will depend on the selected disk with the least amount of unallocated space.
When creating a dynamic volume and selecting one or several basic disks as its destination, the selected disks will be converted to dynamic automatically. Specify the size of the new volume. By default, the volume size is set to maximum.
To specify a different size, move the slider or enter the required value into the Volume size field. If the disk still has unallocated space after you have set the size of the volume, you can set the amount of unallocated space before and after the basic volume.
To do this, drag the volume within the unallocated space, or type the required amount of space before and after the volume in the respective fields. In the volume layout diagram at the bottom of the window, you can specify the space that the volume will occupy on each of the selected disks, by typing the amounts or by dragging the sliders. Some of the supported file systems will be disabled depending on the chosen volume type and size—for example, FAT32 will be disabled if the volume size has been set at more than 2 TB.
Select the cluster size—the smallest amount of disk space which will be allocated to store a file. We recommend leaving the default size, which is marked in the list as default. The default cluster size depends on the volume size and the type of the file system—for example, the default cluster size for up to 2-TB NTFS volumes is 4 KB. A short name that you can assign to a volume to better differentiate it from other volumes. Assign a drive letter to the volume to be able to locate files and folders on it.
Set the volume as Primary, if you plan to install an operating system on it. Mark the primary volume as Active, if you need the machine to start from this volume. Set the volume as Logical, if it is intended for data storage. Click Finish to add the pending volume creation operation.
The results of the pending operation are immediately displayed as if the operation had been performed. To perform the pending operation you will have to commit it p. Exiting the program without committing the pending operations will effectively cancel them. Extending a basic volume.
A basic volume occupies a single region on a single basic disk. When you extend a basic volume, you can choose to leave the disk as basic and use only the unallocated space that is adjacent to the volume.
Alternatively, you can choose to convert the disk to dynamic and use unallocated space from all dynamic disks on your machine. In the second case, the volume will become a simple or spanned volume. Resizing a volume from which the machine or an operating system starts. You can resize the system volume, a boot volume, or the active volume only when it is a basic volume.
To resize a volume 1. Select the volume that you want to resize, and then click Resize volume. Specify the new size of the volume, by typing it or by moving the slider. The volume will remain a basic volume. The volume will be converted to a simple or spanned volume, and the corresponding disk will become dynamic. Note: This option is not available if the volume is the system volume, a boot volume, or the active volume.
This may involve relocating other volumes within the disk. As a result you will be able to extend the volume by using all unallocated space, including the unallocated space that is not currently adjacent to the volume, while keeping the disk as a basic disk.
As a result you will get additional unallocated space, which will be adjacent to the volume that you are resizing. To include these volumes, select the Use free space on boot volumes check box. Examine how the resized volume will be located on the disk or disks, by using the preview area at the bottom of the window. Click OK to add the pending volume resizing operation.
Unlike copying all files from the volume, copying the volume itself ensures that the entire content of the new volume is the same. The original and new volumes can have different types and sizes. For example, you can copy a striped volume as a larger simple volume. Important: When you copy the system volume, the active volume, or a boot volume, you might not be able to boot the machine from the new volume.
Bootability will be preserved when you move such volume p. To copy a volume 1. Select the volume that you want to copy, and then click Copy volume. Select the type that the new volume will have. The default type is that of the original volume. This size cannot be less than the size of data on the original volume. For a basic volume, you can increase its size only by taking unallocated space that is adjacent to it. In the volume layout diagram at the bottom of the window, you can specify the space that the volume will occupy on each of the selected disks, by typing the sizes or by dragging the sliders.
Click Finish to add the pending volume copying operation. Unlike moving all files from the volume, moving the volume itself ensures that the entire content of the new volume is the same.
This is important if you are moving a volume from which Windows starts. The original and new volumes can have different types. For example, you can move a striped volume as a larger simple volume. Tip: If you want to relocate a basic volume within the same disk, you can use the resizing a volume p. Namely, you can leave the size of the volume unchanged, but change the amount of unallocated space before and after the volume.
Caution: Avoid moving a volume from which an operating system other than Windows, such as Linux, starts. Otherwise, that operating system may become unbootable.
To move a volume 1. Select the volume that you want to move, and then click Move volume. Click Finish to add the pending volume moving operation. If you want to transfer your system to a new hard disk, consider disk cloning instead—see Basic disk cloning p.
The machine or its operating system will not always remain bootable after you move such volume. A reboot is required when you move the boot volume of the currently running Windows operating system, the system volume, or the active volume. All data will remain intact and reside on the resultant volume.